The Masculine Nouns – Exceptions

In one of the previous blog posts I wrote about feminine exceptions, but the masculine gender also has many features. The basic rule is that the masculine nouns in Slovenian end in a consonant in singular. In dual they get the ending –a, and in plural the ending –i. However, there are also some masculine nouns that end in a vowel (this also applies to the Slovenian male names, such as Luka, Žiga, Mitja, Miha, Drago, Samo, Jaka, Jože, Marko, etc.). Some of these words are similar in other languages, too (see the second table below).

Masculine nouns which follow the basic rule

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL ENGLISH
stol stola* stoli chair
telefon telefona telefoni telephone
dežnik dežnika dežniki umbrella
računalnik računalnika računalniki computer

*the dual ending is always the same as the genitive ending in singular (only for the masculine gender)

Masculine nouns ending in a vowel

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL ENGLISH
avto avta avti car
studio studia studii studio
kino kina kini cinema
radio radia radii radio
finale finala finali finals
kivi* kivija kiviji kiwi
taksi* taksija taksiji taxi
moški moška moški man

*kivi and taksi prolong their endings with –j in dual and plural

Prolonging the base with -ov

In Slovenian, there are also some monosyllabic masculine nouns which we prolong with –ov and add the regular endings for dual and plural.

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL ENGLISH
sok sokova sokovi juice
gozd gozdova gozdovi forest
grad gradova gradovi castle
svet svetova svetovi world
most mostova mostovi bridge
cvet cvetova cvetovi blossom
vrt vrtova vrtovi garden
pas pasova pasovi belt
sin sinova sinovi son
nos nosova nosovi nose
cvetovi

Two endings in plural

Some masculine nouns have two options for plural; we can use a regular ending –i, or also –je. Both are correct!

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL ENGLISH
gospod gospoda gospodi = gospodje mister
študent študenta študenti = študentje student
kmet kmeta kmeti = kmetje farmer
fant fanta fanti = fantje boy
gost gosta gosti = gostje guest
medved medveda medvedi = medvedje bear
sosed soseda sosedi = sosedje neighbor
brat brata brati = bratje brother

Masculine nouns ending in -r

And finally, a special feature of some masculine nouns are those that end in –r (but not all of them!). These get the ending –ja in dual and –ji in plural (so we have to add the letter j before the regular endings).

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL ENGLISH
kuhar kuharja kuharji cook
slikar slikarja slikarji painter
koledar koledarja koledarji calendar
vrtnar vrtnarja vrtnarji gardener
kipar kiparja kiparji sculptor
maser maserja maserji masseur
profesor profesorja profesorji professor
poštar poštarja poštarji mailman
motor motorja motorji engine, motor bike
televizor televizorja televizorji television set
pulover puloverja puloverji pullover

As you can see, there are many features for the masculine gender as well. And I didn’t even mention all of them! So you don’t only have to worry about the feminine exceptions which can cause confusion to anyone who learns Slovenian. I’m sure that those learning Slovenian are already used to it! 🙂

Published on July 22, 2019